Ebola virus (EBOV) is the most dangerous Ebolavirus, which causes an extremely severe disease in humans and in nonhuman primates, the Ebola hemorrhagic fever. EBOV is a select agent, World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogen (requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment), National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A Priority Pathogen, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agent, and listed as a Biological Agent for Export Control by the Australia Group.
The Federal Government yesterday confirmed outbreak of dengue heamorrhagic fever in Nasarawa State, denying media reports about the outbreak of Ebola diseases in the country.
Dengue fever (UK /ˈdɛŋɡeɪ/ or US /ˈdɛŋɡiː/), also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs.
Dengue is transmitted by several species of mosquito within the genus Aedes, principally A. aegypti. The virus has five different types; infection with one type usually gives lifelong immunity to that type, but only short-term immunity to the others. Subsequent infection with a different type increases the risk of severe complications. As there is no commercially available vaccine, prevention is sought by reducing the habitat and the number of mosquitoes and limiting exposure to bites.
Treatment of acute dengue is supportive, using either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease, and intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases. The number of cases of dengue fever has increased dramatically since the 1960s, with between 50 and 528 million people infected yearly. Early descriptions of the condition date from 1779, and its viral cause and the transmission were figured out in the early 20th century. Dengue has become a global problem since the Second World War and is endemic in more than 110 countries. Apart from eliminating the mosquitoes, work is ongoing on a vaccine, as well as medication targeted directly at the virus.
In a press statement issued by the Federal Ministry of Health, FMoH, and signed by the Special Assistant on Media and Communication to the Minister of Health, Mr. Dan Nwomeh, explained that laboratory investigation into the alleged ebola case in Nasarawa showed a case of Dengue heamorrhagic fever and not Ebola.
Dengue fever is caused by a virus named Dengue fever virus (DFV). This virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, mostly in urban and semi urban areas.
Meanwhile, the World Health Organisation, WHO, has confirmed ebola fever in Liberia, and has started to spread from Guinea across West Africa.
Nwomeh disclosed that the government explained that the activities of the mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus) that transmit this virus are being closely monitored nationwide by the Arbovirus Research Centre of the Federal Ministry of Health based in Enugu.
According to the statement; Dengue Heamorrhagic Fever, DHF, is an acute illness of sudden onset that usually follows a benign course with symptoms such as headache, fever, exhaustion, severe muscle and joint pain, swollen lymph nodes and rashes. At the onset of the disease, it mimicks Malaria and, often so, it is mistakenly diagnosed as Malaria. However, other signs of Dengue fever which include bleeding gums, bloody diarrhea, bleeding from the nose and severe pain behind the eyes, red palms and soles differentiate it from Malaria. Laboratory tests are usually necessary for its confirmation.
Nwomeh in the statement explained that the prevention of the transmission of Dengue Heamorrhagic Fever is similar to the prevention of Malaria.
“It is therefore very important to give environmental sanitation and mosquito bites control a high priority to reduce mosquito-human contact and also to eliminate multiplication of mosquitoes that are the vectors of the Dengue fever virus,” he said
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